Non Destructive Testing (NDT) is the application of measurement techniques in
provide useful information to assist in the management of plant safety, if done
inappropriately or NDT is not applied correctly, then the result are likely to give a
false impression of the integrity and safety of a plant or components.
The presence of flaws in critical components may result in the integrity of such
system being compromised and increased likelihood of failure.
NDT techniques fall into two categories:
- Techniques which only detect and size defects/damages present on the
- Techniques which detect and size defects/damages embodied within a
Correct selection and application of NDT Technique can provide confidence that a
component or piece of plant does not contain defects of the types which the
technique was capable of detecting. The type of defects/flaws and degradation that
can be detected using NDT are summarized as:
- Planar defects - such as fatigue cracks, lack of side wall fusion in welds,
environmental assisted cracking such as hydrogen cracking and stress
corrosion cracks, cold shuts in castings. Etc
- Laminations - such as Rolling and forging laminations. Laminar inclusions
and de-laminations in composites
- Voids and Inclusions: such as voids, slag and porosity in welds, voids in
castings and forgings.
- Wall thinning - Caused by through life wall loss due to corrosion and erosion.
- Corrosion Pits: These are localised and deep areas of corrosion.
- Structural deformities - such as dents, bulges and ovality.
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